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The repressive and reactionary policies imposed on Italy by the Austrian leader Klemens, Fürst von Metternich, and the Congress of Vienna aggravated popular discontent, and the expansion of Austrian control in Italy stimulated intense anti-foreign sentiment.

 Fürst von Metternich

A series of unsuccessful revolts led in the 1820s by the Carbonari, a conspiratorial nationalist organization, and in the 1830s by Mazzini’s Young Italy group, provided the background for the Revolution of 1848, which developed in every major Italian city and throughout Europe.

These conditions gave rise to the Italian unification movement known as the Risorgimento.

Revolutionaries and patriots, especially Giuseppe Mazzini, began to work actively for unity and independence.

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